International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, Volume 2021

FIVER – Robust Verification of Countermeasures against Fault Injections


FIVER - Fault Injection VERification

This repository contains the source code for the paper FIVER - Robust Verification of Countermeasures against Fault Injections.


FIVER is a framework written in C++ relying on Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (ROBDDs). The software is used to analyze and verify implementations of countermeasures against fault-injection attacks. The implementation can be given as Verilog netlist or as instruction list.

Contact and Support

Please contact Jan Richter-Brockmann ( if you have any questions, comments, if you found a bug that should be corrected, or if you want to reuse the framework or parts of it for your own research projects.

Build Instructions

To build FIVER, please follow the instructions below:

  1. Clone the FIVER repository.
  2. Download and unpack the Boost Graph Library (BGL) library.
  3. cd boost_X_XX_X
  4. ./ --prefix=/path/to/FIVER --with-libraries=program_options
  5. ./b2 install
  6. Download and unpack the CUDD library.
  7. cd cudd-3.0.0/
  8. ./configure --prefix=/path/to/FIVER --enable-shared --enable-obj
  9. make check
  10. make install
  11. Change directory to the FIVER folder.
  12. If neccessary, update the INCLUDES variable in the FIVER makefile with the path to your copy of BGL (i.e., /path/to/FIVER/include/ as selected as prefix in step 4).
  13. make release

Quick Start

Build the FIVER framework following the instructions above. FIVER is configured by a configuration file placed in the config/ folder. You can set the number of cores used by FIVER and the memory used per core (passed to the CUDD library). Additionally, you can set the path to the library describing the behavior of the logic gates. To analyze a target design, the circuit configurations are used. The design description can either be passed as Verilog (*.v file) or as list of instructions (*.nl file) to FIVER (examples can be found in test/ directory). In case you select a Verilog netlist, the module name must be given. The correction_based setting is set to true in case a correction based countermeasure should be analyzed. The fault configurations are used to determine the fault model. Set interrupt to true in case the analyses should be stopped when an effective fault is found. You will obtain a detailed fault report.

  1. make release
  2. bin/release/verify -c config/verify

Examplary output for test/craft-1round/

[     0.000] Netlist: test/craft-1round/
[     0.002] Parse: 1118 gate(s) / 1779 signal(s)
[     0.169] Elaborate: 1 register stage(s) / 0 logic layer(s) and 2 logic stages. 

Valid fault locations: 766
Reduced fault locations: 0
Analyzing circuit with 128 inputs and 65 outputs.

Found 2 valid stages to inject faults.

Fault injections with n=1 faults per logic level and variate set to 1
Permuted fault Locations: 316
[====================================================================================================] 100 %
Permuted fault Locations: 450
[====================================================================================================] 100 %

Tested 766 combinations.

>>> found 0 effective faults
>>> found 78768 ineffective faults
>>> found 19280 detected faults
>>> found 98048 fault scenarios

Tested 766 combinations in total.

>>> found 0 effective faults
>>> found 78768 ineffective faults
>>> found 19280 detected faults
>>> found 98048 fault scenarios

>>> fault rate: 0.000000
Time: 18.922252 ms

To obtain the above results, the following configuration file and blacklist is used:

#  1) For auto-detection of number of cores used during analysis provide "general.cores = 0", otherwise specify number of cores.
#  2) Specify the amount of RAM to be used for the internal computation on BDDs (given in GB by "general.memory").
#  3) Specify the level of verbosity:
#     - 0: off (report results only)
#     - 1: on (report results and details)
#  4) List all Designs Under Test (DUTs) under "circuit.dut" (with spaces as separating character).
#  5) Variate: defines univariate, bivariate, ... (1,2,...)
#  6) Specify the location of the fault mapping that should be used (mapping)
#  7) Specify the location where faults should be injection (location: c, s, cs)
#  8) blacklist: points to a txt file that contains a list of all entities that should be excluded
#  9) reduced_complexity: 0: disable - 1: naive - 2: aggrassive - 3: conservative
# 10) correction_based: false: detection-based countermeasure, true: correction-based countermeasure
# 11) interrupt: true: verification is interrupted if an effective fault is detected - detailed report of fault location, mapping, and input vectors

cores               = 8
memory              = 8
verbose             = 1
file                = cell/Library.txt
name                = NANG45
dut                 = test/craft-1round/
module              = sbox_wrapper
correction_based    = false
number              = 1
variate             = 1
mapping             = model/bitflip.txt
location            = cs
blacklist           = model/blacklist.txt
reduced_complexity  = 0
interrupt           = false
# This file is used to determine entities that should not be faulted
# The parser searches for all strings that are given in this file in the annotations of the nl file.
# In case it finds a match, the corresponding gate will be blacklisted.
Check1_CheckInst Red_ToCheckInst

Configuration Details

The configuration file contains a setting to control the complexity reduction (reduced_complexity). Valid values are:

Verilog Annotations

In case you would like to pass a Verilog netlist to FIVER, the clock signal and control signal need to be annotated. This is required to allow a correct parsing of the netlist to the internally used instruction list (*.nl file). The given example shows the syntax of annotations:

  input [63:0] Input;
  input [63:0] Key;
  output [63:0] Output;
  (* fiver="clock" *)input clk;
  (* fiver="control" *)input rst;
  output ErrorFlag;


Here are some common issues you may encounter during execution along with possible fixes.

Shared libraries (

In case you get an error message similar to:

./bin/verify: error while loading shared libraries: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

please export the /lib directory to your linker library path, e.g., using export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=``pwd``/lib before executing the binary.


Copyright (c) 2021, Jan Richter-Brockmann, Pascal Sasdrich, Amir Moradi (verilogParser.h). All rights reserved.

Please see LICENSE for further license instructions.


J. Richter-Brockmann, A. Rezaei Shahmirzadi, P. Sasdrich, A. Moradi, T. Güneysu (2021): FIVER - Robust Verification of Countermeasures against Fault Injections. TCHES 2021 (preprint)


We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers from the CHES'21 artifact submission committee that provided us with useful comments and suggestions to improve our framework and the instructions to run FIVER.